The main objective of the FRONTEX agency is to coordinate the policy of cooperation between Member States in the area of external border management. Member States provide the Agency with human and material resources, such as helicopters and experts. Frontex has coordinated several famous joint operations. As an illustration, Austria, Iceland, Italy, Poland and the United Kingdom participated in 2006 operations Poseidon and Nautilus for the protection of the Greek border. After the Arab Spring, Operation Hermes began in February 2011 along the Italian and Maltese coasts. Frontex is also involved in external border management and has agreements with non-EU countries such as Cape Verde and Mauritania. FRONTEX coordinated Operation Hera II with ships and aircraft from Italy, Finland and Portugal patrolling the coastal areas of Senegal, Mauritania, Cape Verde and the Canary Islands. Senegal and Mauritania also provided assets and personnel. As a result of this operation, which lasted from August to December 2006, the influx of irregular migration has decreased considerably.
 Iceland participated in FRONTEX operations and sent its patrol vessel and the TF-SIF surveillance and rescue aircraft.  A Schengen visa or visa exemption does not allow the traveller to enter the Schengen area, but allows the traveller to apply for entry to the crossing point. The Schengen border code lists the requirements that third-country nationals must meet in order to enter the Schengen area. To this end, a national of a third country is a person who does not enjoy the right to free movement (i.e. a person who is not an EU national, of the EEA, Switzerland or the United Kingdom, or a family member of a person in possession of a residence card marked “family member of a European Union citizen” or “family member of an EEA or CH citizen”). Since June 2017, ten urban transport agreements have come into force. Vatican City has an open border with Italy. In 2006, it expressed interest in joining the Schengen Agreements with a view to closer cooperation on the exchange of information and similar activities under the Schengen Information System.  Exceptionally, Italy allowed people to visit Vatican City without being accepted for an Italian visa, and then to be escorted by police between the airport and the Vatican or by helicopter.
[Citation required] However, there is no customs union (including customs) between Italy and the Vatican, so all vehicles are controlled at the Vatican`s borders. After Slovakia, Denmark, the Czech Republic and Poland announced in mid-March the complete closure of their national borders, European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen said that “some controls may be justified, but the World Health Organization does not consider general travel bans to be the most effective. In addition, they have strong social and economic repercussions, disrupting people`s lives and affairs across borders.  Von der Leyen also apologised to Italy, amid widespread Italian discontent over Europe`s lack of solidarity.  Until the end of March 2020, almost all of Schengen`s internal borders were closed to non-essential travel.
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